Recent Changes

Friday, May 27

  1. page Student Protest edited Student Protest and the First Amendment ... social change. Americanstudent American student …

    Student Protest and the First Amendment
    ...
    social change. AmericanstudentAmerican student activism is
    A Brief History of Student Unrest
    The history of education has long been marked by struggles for power and political advancement. Student activism is almost as old as college itself. It is at the university that students begin to define their own identities and collective powers. They also start to characterize themselves in relation to society and the social institutions with which they disagree. Student activism is most certainly not a new concept, and American colleges have seen periods of extreme turmoil and disruption even before the United States became a nation. American students agitated against the Crown in the 1760s, slavery in the 1830s, and the Union draft in the 1860s. It was after the Civil War that America began the process of taking on its modern disposition. In the 1900s, college administrators began witnessing the formation of more radical liberal student groups. These groups were typically offshoots of adult political organizations. One such example is the Intercollegiate Socialist Society (ISS). The ISS was founded in 1905 and targeted higher education institutions on the east coast. It opposed United States involvement in World War I and supported issues like free speech on campus, the removal of immigration restrictions, and the World Court. This group, and others like The Young People’s Socialist League (YPSL) and The Student Christian Volunteer Movement (SCVM), were primarily focused on educational rather than activist goals.
    (view changes)
    2:59 pm
  2. page Hate Speech edited ... It should be noted that homosexuality and bisexuality are not developed as a result of child r…
    ...
    It should be noted that homosexuality and bisexuality are not developed as a result of child rearing by his or her parents, or by the sexual experiences during development. Nor is homosexuality or bisexuality a mental illness.
    Examples of Sexual Orientation Hate Speech
    ...
    US recently.
    National Origin
    National origin (or nationality) is defined as membership or belonging to a specific nation by either birth or naturalization. It can sometimes be determined by the ethnicity of an individual aside from their citizenship. The people composed of a certain nationality have common traditions and culture.
    The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (in Article 15) reads, "Everyone has the right to a nationality," and "No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality." {http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_ZRNo_abyWHc/SsT8tmeLePI/AAAAAAAAAA0/YKql3Y2U7Yw/s320/interview.bmp} Accent
    ...
    national origin. {http://rollback.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/2008/03/17/english_parking.jpg} English Speaking Only
    Examples of National Origin Hate Speech
    {http://rollback.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/2008/03/17/english_parking.jpg} English Only The video above mentions the discrimination met by individuals of Arab descent after the September 11th, 2001 attacks on the US.
    "At 8:45 a.m., September 11th, 2001, the first of two airlines struck the World Trade Center in New York, in the first of a series of coordinated terrorist attacks on the United States. At 9:03, a second plane crashed into a second World Trade Center tower, and exploded. With both buildings ablaze, hundreds of rescue personnel rushed to the scene.
    At 9:43 a.m., a third passenger plane crashed into the Pentagon, in the world’s largest office building. At 10:05, the south tower of the World Trade Center collapses, plummeting into the streets below. A massive cloud of dust and debris forms and slowly drifts away from the building. Five minutes later, a portion of the Pentagon collapsed. At 10:28, The World Trade Center's north tower collapses from the top down, releasing a tremendous cloud of debris and smoke. At 10:48 police confirm that a fourth passenger jet had crashed in western Pennsylvania."

    http://law.yourdictionary.com/hate-speech
    http://www.usconstitution.net/const.html#Am1
    ...
    http://www.wunrn.com/reference/pdf/univ_dec_hum_right.pdf
    http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/nationalorigin.cfm
    http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/modules/sept11th/index.cfm
    (view changes)
    2:27 pm
  3. page Loyalty Oaths edited ... California State University System During the 2007-2008 academic year, two potential employee…
    ...
    California State University System
    During the 2007-2008 academic year, two potential employees of the California State University (CSU) system were not hired by their respective universities based solely upon their refusal to sign the state's required loyalty oath.
    ...
    to the oath.Attorneyoath. Attorney General Jerry
    A similar situation from the previous semester at another CSU institution came to light after Kearney-Brown's case gained state and national media attention. Wendy Gonaver, initially offered a position as an American studies instructor at California State University Fullerton, refused to sign the state's loyalty oath as part of her hiring materials, indicating that the oath as written restricted her freedom of religion. As a Quaker, Gonaver was unwilling to sign a document stating that she would "defend" the state and federal constitutions "against all enemies." In contrast to Kearney-Brown, Gonaver requested to sign the oath if she could append a personal statement clarifying her beliefs, similar to the policy of the University of California system; however, she was not allowed to do so. According to Clara Potes-Fellow, CSU Fullerton spokesperson, "The position of the university is that her entire added material was against the law." The Gonaver case was resolved in June 2008, when CSU Fullerton agreed to allow Gonaver to attach a statement clarifying her position. Claudia Keith, a spokesperson for the CSU system, acknowledged problems with the situation and stated, "We certainly respect employees' rights to believe in anything they want to believe in." Despite the two similar incidents, the California State University system opted not to create a systemwide policy addressing procedures for the Oath of Allegiance.
    In August 2008, the California state legislature passed a bill, SB 1322, which would update and clarify the State Oath of Allegiance. The bill sought to remove references in the oath to Communism and group membership ruled unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court, remove other Communism-specific provisions related to state and local government employment, and amend the oath requirement to allow for religious exemptions "provided that he or she is otherwise willing and able to uphold the United States Constitution and the constitution and laws of this state and to complete the duties of employment." SB 1322 was vetoed by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. The governor issued the following statement, without reference to the religious exemption that helped spark the bill:
    ...
    California State University East Bay. (2008, March 3). State Attorney General's Office Affirms Oath of Allegiance Requirement.
    Paddock, R. C. (2008, May 2). Enduring oath still testing loyalties. Los Angeles Times.
    //Ibid.//Ibid.
    Paddock, R. C. (2008, June 3). Lecturer allowed to add to oath. Los Angeles Times.
    California State Senate. (2008). Senate Bill No. 1322.
    ...
    Keyishian v. Board of Regents, 385 U.S. 589 (1967)
    Sun, J. C. (n.d.). Knight v. Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York. Retrieved May 26, 2011, from Encyclopedia of Law and Higher Education.
    //Ibid.//Ibid.
    Knight v. Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York, 269 F. Supp. 339 (S.D.N.Y. 1967), aff’d, 390 U.S. 36 (1968)
    (view changes)
    2:20 pm
  4. page Loyalty Oaths edited ... California State University System During the 2007-2008 academic year, two potential employee…
    ...
    California State University System
    During the 2007-2008 academic year, two potential employees of the California State University (CSU) system were not hired by their respective universities based solely upon their refusal to sign the state's required loyalty oath.
    ...
    to the oath.
    Attorney
    oath.Attorney General Jerry
    A similar situation from the previous semester at another CSU institution came to light after Kearney-Brown's case gained state and national media attention. Wendy Gonaver, initially offered a position as an American studies instructor at California State University Fullerton, refused to sign the state's loyalty oath as part of her hiring materials, indicating that the oath as written restricted her freedom of religion. As a Quaker, Gonaver was unwilling to sign a document stating that she would "defend" the state and federal constitutions "against all enemies." In contrast to Kearney-Brown, Gonaver requested to sign the oath if she could append a personal statement clarifying her beliefs, similar to the policy of the University of California system; however, she was not allowed to do so. According to Clara Potes-Fellow, CSU Fullerton spokesperson, "The position of the university is that her entire added material was against the law." The Gonaver case was resolved in June 2008, when CSU Fullerton agreed to allow Gonaver to attach a statement clarifying her position. Claudia Keith, a spokesperson for the CSU system, acknowledged problems with the situation and stated, "We certainly respect employees' rights to believe in anything they want to believe in." Despite the two similar incidents, the California State University system opted not to create a systemwide policy addressing procedures for the Oath of Allegiance.
    In August 2008, the California state legislature passed a bill, SB 1322, which would update and clarify the State Oath of Allegiance. The bill sought to remove references in the oath to Communism and group membership ruled unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court, remove other Communism-specific provisions related to state and local government employment, and amend the oath requirement to allow for religious exemptions "provided that he or she is otherwise willing and able to uphold the United States Constitution and the constitution and laws of this state and to complete the duties of employment." SB 1322 was vetoed by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. The governor issued the following statement, without reference to the religious exemption that helped spark the bill:
    Many Californians have fled communist regimes, immigrated to the United States and sought freedom in our nation because of the human rights abuses perpetuated in other parts of the world. It is important particularly for those people that California maintains the protections of current law. Therefore, I see no compelling reason to change the law that maintains our responsibility to ensure that public resources are not used for purposes of overthrowing the U.S. or state government, or for communist activities.
    ...
    of Regents (discussed later in this article) and no
    Arizona
    Similar to California, the Arizona Revised Statues require all government employees and officials in the state, including employees of public colleges and universities, to sign a loyalty oath indicating that they will "support the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution and Laws of the State of Arizona; that [they] will bear true faith and allegiance to the same, and defend them against all enemies, foreign or domestic."
    ...
    Rogow, A. A. (1961). The Loyalty Oath Issue in Iowa, 1951. The American Political Science Review , 55 (4), 861-869.
    Warren, C. (1949). Academic Freedom. The Journal of Higher Education , 20 (7), 353-354+392.
    http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/~ucalhist/archives_exhibits/loyaltyoath/timeline1949_2.html
    http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/~ucalhist/archives_exhibits/loyaltyoath/timeline1949_3.html
    http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/~ucalhist/archives_exhibits/loyaltyoath/timeline1949_5.html
    http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/~ucalhist/archives_exhibits/loyaltyoath/timeline1949_6.html
    [[http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/~ucalhist/archives_exhibits/loyaltyoath/timeline1949_2.htmlFinacom, S. (2003, December 15). Expanded Timeline: Events of the Loyalty Oath Controversy and Historical Background, March-April 1949. Retrieved May 26, 2011, from The Loyalty Oath Controversy, University of California, 1949-1951.]]
    Finacom, S. (2003, December 15). Expanded Timeline: Events of the Loyalty Oath Controversy and Historical Background, May-June 1949. Retrieved May 26, 2011, from The Loyalty Oath Controversy, University of California, 1949-1951.
    Finacom, S. (2003, December 15). Expanded Timeline: Events of the Loyalty Oath Controversy and Historical Background, September-October 1949. Retrieved May 26, 2011, from The Loyalty Oath Controversy, University of California, 1949-1951.
    Finacom, S. (2003, December 15). Expanded Timeline: Events of the Loyalty Oath Controversy and Historical Background, November-December 1949. Retrieved May 26, 2011, from The Loyalty Oath Controversy, University of California, 1949-1951.

    Tolman v.
    ...
    Cal.2d 708
    http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/~ucalhist/archives_exhibits/loyaltyoath/timeline1951_1956.html
    http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/02/29/BAQPVAUVO.DTL
    http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=90225964
    http://www20.csueastbay.edu/news/category-pages/archive-pre-2009/communique/article-177.html
    http://articles.latimes.com/2008/may/02/local/me-oath2
    http://articles.latimes.com/2008/may/02/local/me-oath2
    http://articles.latimes.com/2008/jun/03/local/me-oath3
    ftp://leginfo.public.ca.gov/pub/07-08/bill/sen/sb_1301-1350/sb_1322_bill_20080806_enrolled.pdf
    ftp://leginfo.public.ca.gov/pub/07-08/bill/sen/sb_1301-1350/sb_1322_vt_20080929.html
    http://www.azleg.state.az.us/ars/38/00231.htm
    (1952)
    Finacom, S. (2003, December 15). Expanded Timeline: Events of the Loyalty Oath Controversy and Historical Background, 1951-1956. Retrieved May 26, 2011, from The Loyalty Oath Controversy, University of California, 1949-1951.
    Asimov, N. (2008, February 29). Quaker teacher fired for changing loyalty oath. San Francisco Chronicle , pp. B-1.
    Ibid.
    [[http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=90225964|National Public Radio. (2008, May 6). Teacher Fired After Declining to Sign Loyalty Oath. npr.org .
    California State University East Bay. (2008, March 3). State Attorney General's Office Affirms Oath of Allegiance Requirement.
    Paddock, R. C. (2008, May 2). Enduring oath still testing loyalties. Los Angeles Times.
    //Ibid.//
    Paddock, R. C. (2008, June 3). Lecturer allowed to add to oath. Los Angeles Times.
    California State Senate. (2008). Senate Bill No. 1322.
    Memo to California State Senate from Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. (2008).
    Ariz. Rev. Statutes, §38-231.

    Elfbrandt v. Russell, 384 U.S. 11 (1966)
    Elfbrandt v. Russell, 384 U.S. 11 (1966)
    http://0-chronicle.com.umiss.lib.olemiss.edu/article/Communist-Student-Makes/16207
    http://www.azleg.gov/legtext/46leg/1r/bills/sb1257s.htm
    http://www.azleg.gov/legtext/46leg/1r/bills/sb1257o.asp
    Communist Student Makes Arizona College Abandon Loyalty Oath. (2000, September 22). The Chronicle of Higher Education.
    State of Arizona Senate. (2003). Senate Bill 1257.
    State of Arizona Senate. (2003). Bill Status Overview: SB1257.

    Keyishian v. Board of Regents, 385 U.S. 589 (1967)
    http://lawhighereducation.com/83-knight-v-board-of-regents-of-the-university-of-the-state-of-new-york.html
    http://lawhighereducation.com/83-knight-v-board-of-regents-of-the-university-of-the-state-of-new-york.html
    Sun, J. C. (n.d.). Knight v. Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York. Retrieved May 26, 2011, from Encyclopedia of Law and Higher Education.
    //Ibid.//

    Knight v. Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York, 269 F. Supp. 339 (S.D.N.Y. 1967), aff’d, 390 U.S. 36 (1968)
    (view changes)
    2:19 pm
  5. page Student Protest edited ... The history of education has long been marked by struggles for power and political advancement…
    ...
    The history of education has long been marked by struggles for power and political advancement. Student activism is almost as old as college itself. It is at the university that students begin to define their own identities and collective powers. They also start to characterize themselves in relation to society and the social institutions with which they disagree. Student activism is most certainly not a new concept, and American colleges have seen periods of extreme turmoil and disruption even before the United States became a nation. American students agitated against the Crown in the 1760s, slavery in the 1830s, and the Union draft in the 1860s. It was after the Civil War that America began the process of taking on its modern disposition. In the 1900s, college administrators began witnessing the formation of more radical liberal student groups. These groups were typically offshoots of adult political organizations. One such example is the Intercollegiate Socialist Society (ISS). The ISS was founded in 1905 and targeted higher education institutions on the east coast. It opposed United States involvement in World War I and supported issues like free speech on campus, the removal of immigration restrictions, and the World Court. This group, and others like The Young People’s Socialist League (YPSL) and The Student Christian Volunteer Movement (SCVM), were primarily focused on educational rather than activist goals.
    In the 1920s, students drifted toward activism that was founded in rejecting the conventions of society and criticizing the university system. The University was charged with being too large, too bureaucratic, and too dismissive of student interests and concerns. Some of the student groups active during this decade were the National Student Federation of America, the Student League for Industrial Democracy (SLID), and the SVCM. These groups supported military issues. The students in the organizations argued for disarmament and protested American military incursions into Mexico and Nicaragua. This “anti-war” ideolgy carried into the 1930s, creating “the first mass student movement in American history” . The outbreak of World War II brought a pause in the radical student movements that carried in the next decade. In fact, college students in the 1950s were often referred to as “the silent generation” .
    ...
    race relations.
    The

    The
    1990s saw
    ...
    tuition costs.
    How the First Amendment Applies to Student Protest
    "Congress shall make no law abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and consult for thier common good, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances" (First Amendment)
    ...
    law forbids?
    The

    The
    right to
    ...
    of protection.
    The First Amendment applies to all areas of the government. This includes all public schools. Although courts have allowed for school officials to limit student rights in certain circumstances, the courts recognize that that students, like all other citizens, should be protected by the First Amendment. Schools may limit student expression based on the reasonable and nondiscriminatory regulations of time, place, and manner. Students in public schools do not posses the exact same level of rights as adults in a public forum would because of these restrictions that are set forth to maintain a positive learning environment and allow schools to continue to be considered "a marketplace of ideas." Nonetheless, these time, place, and manner restrictions must still be reasonable. The U.S. Supreme court has stated that First Amendment jurisprudence provides that time, place, and manner restrictions are indeed constitutional if the abide by the following guidelines:
    The are content neutral.
    ...
    They leave open ample alternative means of expression.
    This means simply that school officials have the power to limit student distribution of material to certain locations and at certain times so long as these regulations are both reasonable and nondiscriminatory.
    **
    Important Cases
    West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette, 1943 (Click here to view case)
    Situation
    ...
    Amendment rights.
    Applications
    ...
    public schools.
    Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, 1969 (Click to view case)
    Situation
    ...
    of speech.
    Applications
    ...
    First Amendment.
    Wilson v. Johnson, 2007
    Situation
    ...
    to send.
    Application
    ...
    manner concerns.
    Smith v. Tarrant County College District, 2010
    Situation
    ...
    in advance.
    Application
    ...
    their beliefs.
    Other Examples of Students Protests
    Berkeley
    ...
    civic duty.
    As

    As
    time passed,
    ...
    Amendment rights.
    San Diego State University, 1992
    ...
    following autumn.
    Administrative Application
    ...
    Though these trendtrends are not
    ...
    to create.
    The

    The
    modern university
    ...
    our students.
    "Only the educated are truly free."
    -Epictetus
    (view changes)
    2:15 pm
  6. page Hate Speech edited ... It should be noted that homosexuality and bisexuality are not developed as a result of child r…
    ...
    It should be noted that homosexuality and bisexuality are not developed as a result of child rearing by his or her parents, or by the sexual experiences during development. Nor is homosexuality or bisexuality a mental illness.
    Examples of Sexual Orientation Hate Speech
    ...
    one man. The video above (right) shows a gay man being interviewed by his cousin. The director of the video also provides mention of the gay suicides that have struck the US recently.
    National Origin
    National origin (or nationality) is defined as membership or belonging to a specific nation by either birth or naturalization. It can sometimes be determined by the ethnicity of an individual aside from their citizenship. The people composed of a certain nationality have common traditions and culture.
    ...
    http://scrapetv.com/News/News%20Pages/Politics/pages-2/Washington-on-alert-as-Maine-becomes-latest-pink-state-Scrape-TV-The-World-on-your-side.html
    http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aAsubiL17wkQ
    http://www.southfloridagaynews.com/editorial/publishers-editorial/2210-five-gay-suicides-shock-america.html
    http://www.thefreedictionary.com/nationality
    http://www.wunrn.com/reference/pdf/univ_dec_hum_right.pdf
    (view changes)
    2:15 pm
  7. page Loyalty Oaths edited ... In the majority opinion, Justice Brennan emphasized the importance of protecting academic free…
    ...
    In the majority opinion, Justice Brennan emphasized the importance of protecting academic freedom, recognizing that the First Amendment remained in place for instructors and that the classroom served as a "marketplace for ideas"; Brennan indicated that students and future leaders needed this exposure to diverse ideas.
    In Knight v. Board of Regents(1968), the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the oath being used by the State of New York at the time, which required employees of public schools and tax-exempt private schools, including university faculty, to indicate their support for the national and state constitution. This ruling confirmed that, conceptually, an oath requiring allegiance to the United States and to the specific state in question is acceptable; as written, the New York oath was considered specific while not restricting political speech or expression.
    http://0-www.jstor.org.umiss.lib.olemiss.edu/stable/pdfplus/2263682.pdf?acceptTC=true
    http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/~ucalhist/archives_exhibits/loyaltyoath/timeline1940_1948.html
    http://0-www.jstor.org.umiss.lib.olemiss.edu/stable/pdfplus/2263682.pdf?acceptTC=true
    http://0-www.jstor.org.umiss.lib.olemiss.edu/stable/pdfplus/1952533.pdf?acceptTC=true
    http://0-www.jstor.org.umiss.lib.olemiss.edu/stable/pdfplus/1976205.pdf?acceptTC=true
    Smith, P. M. (1950). Teacher Loyalty and Academic Freedom. Journal of Educational Sociology , 23 (5), 251-257.
    Finacom, S. (2003, December 15). Expanded Timeline: Events of the Loyalty Oath Controversy and Historical Background, 1940-1948. Retrieved May 26, 2011, from The Loyalty Oath Controversy, University of California, 1949-1951.
    Smith, P. M. (1950). Teacher Loyalty and Academic Freedom. Journal of Educational Sociology , 23 (5), 251-257.
    Rogow, A. A. (1961). The Loyalty Oath Issue in Iowa, 1951. The American Political Science Review , 55 (4), 861-869.
    Warren, C. (1949). Academic Freedom. The Journal of Higher Education , 20 (7), 353-354+392.

    http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/~ucalhist/archives_exhibits/loyaltyoath/timeline1949_2.html
    http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/~ucalhist/archives_exhibits/loyaltyoath/timeline1949_3.html
    (view changes)
    2:07 pm
  8. page Student Protest edited ... The history of education has long been marked by struggles for power and political advancement…
    ...
    The history of education has long been marked by struggles for power and political advancement. Student activism is almost as old as college itself. It is at the university that students begin to define their own identities and collective powers. They also start to characterize themselves in relation to society and the social institutions with which they disagree. Student activism is most certainly not a new concept, and American colleges have seen periods of extreme turmoil and disruption even before the United States became a nation. American students agitated against the Crown in the 1760s, slavery in the 1830s, and the Union draft in the 1860s. It was after the Civil War that America began the process of taking on its modern disposition. In the 1900s, college administrators began witnessing the formation of more radical liberal student groups. These groups were typically offshoots of adult political organizations. One such example is the Intercollegiate Socialist Society (ISS). The ISS was founded in 1905 and targeted higher education institutions on the east coast. It opposed United States involvement in World War I and supported issues like free speech on campus, the removal of immigration restrictions, and the World Court. This group, and others like The Young People’s Socialist League (YPSL) and The Student Christian Volunteer Movement (SCVM), were primarily focused on educational rather than activist goals.
    In the 1920s, students drifted toward activism that was founded in rejecting the conventions of society and criticizing the university system. The University was charged with being too large, too bureaucratic, and too dismissive of student interests and concerns. Some of the student groups active during this decade were the National Student Federation of America, the Student League for Industrial Democracy (SLID), and the SVCM. These groups supported military issues. The students in the organizations argued for disarmament and protested American military incursions into Mexico and Nicaragua. This “anti-war” ideolgy carried into the 1930s, creating “the first mass student movement in American history” . The outbreak of World War II brought a pause in the radical student movements that carried in the next decade. In fact, college students in the 1950s were often referred to as “the silent generation” .
    ...
    race relations.
    The

    The
    1990s saw
    ...
    tuition costs.
    How the First Amendment Applies to Student Protest
    "Congress shall make no law abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and consult for thier common good, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances" (First Amendment)
    ...
    law forbids?
    The

    The
    right to
    ...
    of protection.
    The First Amendment applies to all areas of the government. This includes all public schools. Although courts have allowed for school officials to limit student rights in certain circumstances, the courts recognize that that students, like all other citizens, should be protected by the First Amendment. Schools may limit student expression based on the reasonable and nondiscriminatory regulations of time, place, and manner. Students in public schools do not posses the exact same level of rights as adults in a public forum would because of these restrictions that are set forth to maintain a positive learning environment and allow schools to continue to be considered "a marketplace of ideas." Nonetheless, these time, place, and manner restrictions must still be reasonable. The U.S. Supreme court has stated that First Amendment jurisprudence provides that time, place, and manner restrictions are indeed constitutional if the abide by the following guidelines:
    The are content neutral.
    ...
    They leave open ample alternative means of expression.
    This means simply that school officials have the power to limit student distribution of material to certain locations and at certain times so long as these regulations are both reasonable and nondiscriminatory.
    **
    Important Cases
    West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette, 1943 (Click here to view case)
    Situation
    ...
    Amendment rights.
    Applications
    ...
    public schools.
    Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, 1969 (Click to view case)
    Situation
    ...
    of speech.
    Applications
    ...
    First Amendment.
    Wilson v. Johnson, 2007
    Situation
    ...
    to send.
    Application
    ...
    manner concerns.
    Smith v. Tarrant County College District, 2010
    Situation
    ...
    in advance.
    Application
    ...
    their beliefs.
    Other Examples of Students Protests
    Berkeley
    ...
    civic duty.
    As

    As
    time passed,
    ...
    Amendment rights.
    San Diego State University, 1992
    ...
    following autumn.
    Administrative Application
    ...
    to create.
    The

    The
    modern university
    ...
    our students.
    "Only the educated are truly free."
    -Epictetus
    (view changes)
    2:02 pm

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